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Title: Anopheline bionomics, insecticide resistance and transnational dispersion in the context of controlling a possible recurrence of malaria transmission in Jaffna city in northern Sri Lanka
Authors: Surendran, S.N.
Jayadas, T.T.P.
Tharsan, A.
Thiruchenthooran, V.
Santhirasegaram, S.
Sivabalakrishnan, K.
Raveendran, S.
Ramasamy, R.
Keywords: Anopheles malaria vectors;Insecticide resistance;kdr mutation;Jaffna;Larval habitats;Malaria control;Mosquito range expansion;Sri Lanka;Tamil Nadu;Transnational mosquito migration
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Parasites and Vectors
Abstract: Background: Malaria was eliminated from Sri Lanka in 2013. However, the infux of infected travelers and the pres ence of potent anopheline vectors can re-initiate transmission in Jafna city, which is separated by a narrow strait from the malaria-endemic Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Anopheline larvae were collected from diferent habitats in Jafna city and the susceptibility of emergent adults to DDT, malathion and deltamethrin investigated. Results: Anopheline larvae were found in wells, surface-exposed drains, ponds, water puddles and water storage tanks, with many containing polluted, alkaline and brackish water. Anopheles culicifacies, An. subpictus, An. stephensi and An. varuna were identifed in the collections. Adults of the four anopheline species were resistant to DDT. Anopheles subpictus and An. stephensi were resistant while An. culicifacies and An. varuna were possibly resistant to deltamethrin. Anopheles stephensi was resistant, An. subpictus possibly resistant while An. varuna and An. culicifacies were susceptible to malathion. DNA sequencing showed a L1014F (TTA to TTC) mutation in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the voltage-gated sodium channel protein in deltamethrin-resistant An. subpictus—a mutation previously observed in India but not Sri Lanka. Conclusion: Anopheles subpictus in Jafna, like An. stephensi, may have recently originated in coastal Tamil Nadu. Besides infected overseas travelers, wind- and boat-borne carriage of Plasmodium-infected anophelines across the Palk Strait can potentially reintroduce malaria transmission to Jafna city. Adaptation to diverse larval habitats and resistance to common insecticides in anophelines are identifed as potential problems for vector control should this happen.
Appears in Collections:Zoology

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